The Effects of Climate Change on the Natural Rate of Interest: A Critical Survey
32 Pages Posted: 1 Nov 2022
Date Written: October 1, 2022
This survey reviews the literature about the impact of climate change on the natural rate of interest (r*), an important yardstick for monetary policy. Economic and financial developments can lower r* in scenarios with increasing climate-related damages and uncertainty that reduce productivity growth and raise precautionary savings. Instead, in scenarios that assume innovations and investments induced by transition policies, r* could be affected positively. Orderly climate policies have a pivotal role by facilitating the transition to a carbon-neutral economy and supporting a steady investment flow. We discuss the main models used to simulate the effects of climate change on r* and summarize the outcomes. The downward effects of climate change on r* can be substantial, even taking into account the high degree of uncertainty about the outcomes. Moreover, the downward pressure on r* will further challenge monetary policy in the long run, by limiting its policy space.
Keywords: climate change, interest rate, monetary policy, natural rate of interest, social cost of carbon
JEL Classification: E52, Q54
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation