lancet-header

Preprints with The Lancet is part of SSRN´s First Look, a place where journals identify content of interest prior to publication. Authors have opted in at submission to The Lancet family of journals to post their preprints on Preprints with The Lancet. The usual SSRN checks and a Lancet-specific check for appropriateness and transparency have been applied. Preprints available here are not Lancet publications or necessarily under review with a Lancet journal. These preprints are early stage research papers that have not been peer-reviewed. The findings should not be used for clinical or public health decision making and should not be presented to a lay audience without highlighting that they are preliminary and have not been peer-reviewed. For more information on this collaboration, see the comments published in The Lancet about the trial period, and our decision to make this a permanent offering, or visit The Lancet´s FAQ page, and for any feedback please contact preprints@lancet.com.

Comprehensive Analysis of Long COVID in a Japanese Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study

31 Pages Posted: 21 Nov 2022

See all articles by Hideki Terai

Hideki Terai

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Makoto Ishii

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Ryo Takemura

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Ho Namkoong

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Kyoko Shimamoto

Keio University - Keio Global Research Institute

Katsunori Masaki

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Takae Tanosaki

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Shotaro Chubachi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Emiko Matsuyama

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Reina Hayashi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Takashi Shimada

Hino Municipal Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine

Lisa Shigematsu

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Fumimaro Ito

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Masanori Kaji

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Hatsuyo Takaoka

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Momoko Kurihara

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Kensuke Nakagawara

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Saki Tomiyasu

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Kotaro Sasahara

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Ayaka Saito

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Shiro Otake

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Shuhei Azegawa

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Masahiko Okada

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Takahiro Fukushima

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Atsuho Morita

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Hiromu Tanaka

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Keeya Sunata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Masato Asaoka

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Miyuki Nishie

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Taro Shinozaki

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Toshiki Ebisudani

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Yuto Akiyama

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Akifumi Mitsuishi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Shingo Nakayama

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Takunori Ogawa

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Kaori Sakurai

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Misato Kuwae

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Kazuma Yagi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Keiko Ohgino

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Jun Miyata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Hiroki Kabata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Shinnosuke Ikemura

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Hirofumi Kamata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Hiroyuki Yasuda

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Ichiro Kawada

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Ryusei Kimura

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Masahiro Kondo

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Toshiki Iwasaki

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Noriyuki Ishida

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Gaku Hiruma

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Naoki Miyazaki

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Yoshiki Ishibashi

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

Sei Harada

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

Takanori Fujita

Keio University - Department of Health Policy and Management

Daisuke Ito

Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine

Shogyoku Bun

Keio University - Department of Neuropsychiatry

Hajime Tabuchi

Keio University - Department of Neuropsychiatry

Sho Kanzaki

Keio University - Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

Eisuke Shimizu

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology

Keitaro Fukuda

Keio University - Department of Dermatology

Jun Yamagami

Keio University - Department of Dermatology

Keigo Kobayashi

Sano Kosei General Hospital

Toshiyuki Hirano

Sano Kosei General Hospital

Takashi Inoue

Sano Kosei General Hospital

Mizuha Hashiguchi

Keiyu Hospital

Junko Kagyo

Keiyu Hospital

Tetsuya Shiomi

Keiyu Hospital

Ho Lee

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Kai Sugihara

Kawasaki Municipal Hospital

Nao Omori

Kawasaki Municipal Hospital

Koichi Sayama

Kawasaki Municipal Hospital

Kengo Otsuka

Nihon Koukan Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine

Naoki Miyao

Nihon University - Department of Internal Medicine

Toshio Odani

National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Medical Center - Department of Rheumatology

Takao Mochimaru

National Hospital Organisation Tokyo Medical Center - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Ryosuke Satomi

National Hospital Organisation Tokyo Medical Center - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Yoshitaka Oyamada

National Hospital Organisation Tokyo Medical Center - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Keita Masuzawa

Kitasato University - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Takanori Asakura

Keio University - Department of Health Policy and Management

Mayuko Watase

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Sohei Nakayama

Kitasato University - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Yusuke Suzuki

Kitasato University - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Rie Baba

Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital

Satoshi Okamori

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Daisuke Arai

Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital

Ichiro Nakachi

Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital

Naota Kuwahara

Showa University - Division of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine

Akiko Fujiwara

Showa University - Division of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine

Takenori Okada

Showa University - Division of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine

Takashi Ishiguro

Saitama Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center

Taisuke Isono

Saitama Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center

Yasushi Makino

Toyohashi Municipal Hospital

Shuko Mashimo

Toyohashi Municipal Hospital

Tatsuya Kaido

Toyohashi Municipal Hospital

Naoto Minematsu

Hino Municipal Hospital

Soichiro Ueda

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine

Kazuhiro Minami

Saitama University - Saitama Medical Center

Rie Hagiwara

Saitama University - Saitama Medical Center

Tadashi Manabe

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Takahiro Fukui

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Yohei Funatsu

Tachikawa Hospital - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Hidefumi Koh

Tachikawa Hospital - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Takashi Yoshiyama

Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association - Respiratory Disease Center, Fukujuji Hospital

Hiroyuki Kokuto

Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association

Tatsuya Kusumoto

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Ayano Oashi

Eiju General Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Masayoshi Miyawaki

Eiju General Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Fumitake Saito

Eiju General Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Tetsuo Tani

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Kota Ishioka

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Saeko Takahashi

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Morio Nakamura

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Norihiro Harada

Juntendo University - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Hitoshi Sasano

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Ai Nakamura

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Yu Kusaka

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Takehiko Ohba

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Yasushi Nakano

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine

Kazumi Nishio

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital

Yukiko Nakajima

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Shoji Suzuki

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Shuichi Yoshida

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Hiroki Tateno

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine

Nobuhiro Kodama

Fukuoka Tokushukai Hospital - Department of General Internal Medicine

Shunsuke Maeda

Fukuoka Tokushukai Hospital - Department of General Internal Medicine

Satoshi Sakamoto

Kurume University - Department of Internal Medicine

Masaki Okamoto

Kurume University - Department of Internal Medicine

Yoji Nagasaki

Kyushu Medical Center - Division of Infectious Diseases

Akira Umeda

International University of Health and Welfare, Tochigi - Department of General Medicine

Kasuya Miyagawa

International University of Health and Welfare, Tochigi - School of Pharmacy

Naoto Shimada

International University of Health and Welfare, Tochigi - Department of Respiratory Medicine

Kazuto Hagimura

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center

Kengo Nagashima

Biostatistics Unit, Clinical and Translational Research Center, Keio University Hospital

Toshiro Sato

Keio University - Department of Organoid Medicine

Yasunori Sato

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

Naoki Hasegawa

Keio University, School of Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control

Toru Takebayashi

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

Jin Nakahara

Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine

Masaru Mimura

Keio University - Department of Neuropsychiatry

Kaoru Ogawa

Keio University - Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

Shigeto Shimmura

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology

Kazuno Negishi

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology

Kazuo Tsubota

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology

Masayuki Amagai

Keio University - Department of Dermatology

Rei Goto

Keio University - Graduate School of Business Administration

Yoko Ibuka

Keio University - Faculty of Economics

Yuko Kitagawa

Keio University - Department of Surgery

Takanori Kanai

Keio University - Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Koichi Fukunaga

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine

More...

Abstract

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly across the globe since 2019, and the number of reports regarding long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased. Although the distribution of long COVID varies according to patient characteristics, including race, epidemiological data on long COVID in Japanese patients are limited.

Methods: To clarify the detailed distribution of long COVID in Japanese patients, we performed a multicentre, prospective cohort study, which enrolled hospitalised COVID-19 patients ≥ 18 years at 26 medical institutions in Japan. Total of 1,200 patients consented to participate this study and enrolled. Clinical information during hospitalisation and patient-reported outcomes were collected from medical records, paper questionnaires, and smartphone applications. Final analysis was performed to 1,066 patients with both clinical information and patient-reported outcomes.

Findings: Large-scale epidemiological data of long COVID in Japanese patients were revealed in this study. We collected a total of 1,066 cases of medical records and patient-reported outcomes. The proportion of patients with at least one symptom decreased chronologically from 93·9% (947/1,009) during hospitalisation to 46·3% (433/935), 40·5% (350/865), and 33·0% (239/724) at three, six, and 12 months, respectively. Female sex, middle-age (41–64 years), oxygen requirement, and critical condition during hospitalisation were risk factors for long COVID in the Japanese population.

Interpretation: This is the first nationwide Japanese prospective cohort study of long COVID. The frequency of each symptom of long COVID was comparable to that in other reports worldwide.

Funding Information: This research was funded by the Health Labor Science Special Research Project 403 (20CA2054). This research was also supported by AMED (JP20nk0101612, JP20fk0108415, 404 JP20fk0108452) and JST PRESTO (JPMJPR21R7).

Declaration of Interests: The corresponding author and co-authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Ethics Approval Statement: In December 2020, we sent study descriptions and consent forms to potential research candidates from Keio University Hospital, the principal institution. Subsequently, study invitations were mailed from 25 participating institutions that obtained ethical review committee approval and permission to conduct the study. In this study, the questionnaires were delivered partly backward and partly forward by requesting participation from patients after discharge from the hospital, so some patients responded to the questionnaires in a backward-looking manner. The study was approved by Keio University School of Medicine Ethics Committee.

Keywords: Post COVID-19 conditions, general fatigue, patient reported outcome

Suggested Citation

Terai, Hideki and Ishii, Makoto and Takemura, Ryo and Namkoong, Ho and Shimamoto, Kyoko and Masaki, Katsunori and Tanosaki, Takae and Chubachi, Shotaro and Matsuyama, Emiko and Hayashi, Reina and Shimada, Takashi and Shigematsu, Lisa and Ito, Fumimaro and Kaji, Masanori and Takaoka, Hatsuyo and Kurihara, Momoko and Nakagawara, Kensuke and Tomiyasu, Saki and Sasahara, Kotaro and Saito, Ayaka and Otake, Shiro and Azegawa, Shuhei and Okada, Masahiko and Fukushima, Takahiro and Morita, Atsuho and Tanaka, Hiromu and Sunata, Keeya and Asaoka, Masato and Nishie, Miyuki and Shinozaki, Taro and Ebisudani, Toshiki and Akiyama, Yuto and Mitsuishi, Akifumi and Nakayama, Shingo and Ogawa, Takunori and Sakurai, Kaori and Kuwae, Misato and Yagi, Kazuma and Ohgino, Keiko and Miyata, Jun and Kabata, Hiroki and Ikemura, Shinnosuke and Kamata, Hirofumi and Yasuda, Hiroyuki and Kawada, Ichiro and Kimura, Ryusei and Kondo, Masahiro and Iwasaki, Toshiki and Ishida, Noriyuki and Hiruma, Gaku and Miyazaki, Naoki and Ishibashi, Yoshiki and Harada, Sei and Fujita, Takanori and Ito, Daisuke and Bun, Shogyoku and Tabuchi, Hajime and Kanzaki, Sho and Shimizu, Eisuke and Fukuda, Keitaro and Yamagami, Jun and Kobayashi, Keigo and Hirano, Toshiyuki and Inoue, Takashi and Hashiguchi, Mizuha and Kagyo, Junko and Shiomi, Tetsuya and Lee, Ho and Sugihara, Kai and Omori, Nao and Sayama, Koichi and Otsuka, Kengo and Miyao, Naoki and Odani, Toshio and Mochimaru, Takao and Satomi, Ryosuke and Oyamada, Yoshitaka and Masuzawa, Keita and Asakura, Takanori and Watase, Mayuko and Nakayama, Sohei and Suzuki, Yusuke and Baba, Rie and Okamori, Satoshi and Arai, Daisuke and Nakachi, Ichiro and Kuwahara, Naota and Fujiwara, Akiko and Okada, Takenori and Ishiguro, Takashi and Isono, Taisuke and Makino, Yasushi and Mashimo, Shuko and Kaido, Tatsuya and Minematsu, Naoto and Ueda, Soichiro and Minami, Kazuhiro and Hagiwara, Rie and Manabe, Tadashi and Fukui, Takahiro and Funatsu, Yohei and Koh, Hidefumi and Yoshiyama, Takashi and Kokuto, Hiroyuki and Kusumoto, Tatsuya and Oashi, Ayano and Miyawaki, Masayoshi and Saito, Fumitake and Tani, Tetsuo and Ishioka, Kota and Takahashi, Saeko and Nakamura, Morio and Harada, Norihiro and Sasano, Hitoshi and Nakamura, Ai and Kusaka, Yu and Ohba, Takehiko and Nakano, Yasushi and Nishio, Kazumi and Nakajima, Yukiko and Suzuki, Shoji and Yoshida, Shuichi and Tateno, Hiroki and Kodama, Nobuhiro and Maeda, Shunsuke and Sakamoto, Satoshi and Okamoto, Masaki and Nagasaki, Yoji and Umeda, Akira and Miyagawa, Kasuya and Shimada, Naoto and Hagimura, Kazuto and Nagashima, Kengo and Sato, Toshiro and Sato, Yasunori and Hasegawa, Naoki and Takebayashi, Toru and Nakahara, Jin and Mimura, Masaru and Ogawa, Kaoru and Shimmura, Shigeto and Negishi, Kazuno and Tsubota, Kazuo and Amagai, Masayuki and Goto, Rei and Ibuka, Yoko and Kitagawa, Yuko and Kanai, Takanori and Fukunaga, Koichi, Comprehensive Analysis of Long COVID in a Japanese Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4272351 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4272351

Hideki Terai

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Makoto Ishii

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Ryo Takemura

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Ho Namkoong

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Kyoko Shimamoto

Keio University - Keio Global Research Institute ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Katsunori Masaki

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takae Tanosaki

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Shotaro Chubachi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Emiko Matsuyama

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Reina Hayashi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takashi Shimada

Hino Municipal Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Lisa Shigematsu

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Fumimaro Ito

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Masanori Kaji

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hatsuyo Takaoka

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Momoko Kurihara

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Kensuke Nakagawara

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Saki Tomiyasu

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Kotaro Sasahara

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Ayaka Saito

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Shiro Otake

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Shuhei Azegawa

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Masahiko Okada

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takahiro Fukushima

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Atsuho Morita

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hiromu Tanaka

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Keeya Sunata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Masato Asaoka

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Miyuki Nishie

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Taro Shinozaki

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Toshiki Ebisudani

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Yuto Akiyama

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Akifumi Mitsuishi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Shingo Nakayama

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takunori Ogawa

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Kaori Sakurai

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Misato Kuwae

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Kazuma Yagi

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Keiko Ohgino

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Jun Miyata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hiroki Kabata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Shinnosuke Ikemura

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hirofumi Kamata

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hiroyuki Yasuda

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Ichiro Kawada

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Ryusei Kimura

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Masahiro Kondo

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Toshiki Iwasaki

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Noriyuki Ishida

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Gaku Hiruma

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Naoki Miyazaki

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Yoshiki Ishibashi

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ( email )

Sei Harada

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ( email )

Minato
Japan

Takanori Fujita

Keio University - Department of Health Policy and Management ( email )

Japan

Daisuke Ito

Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 1608582
Japan

Shogyoku Bun

Keio University - Department of Neuropsychiatry ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hajime Tabuchi

Keio University - Department of Neuropsychiatry ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Sho Kanzaki

Keio University - Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Eisuke Shimizu

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology ( email )

35 Shinanomachii
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Keitaro Fukuda

Keio University - Department of Dermatology ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Jun Yamagami

Keio University - Department of Dermatology ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Keigo Kobayashi

Sano Kosei General Hospital ( email )

Japan

Toshiyuki Hirano

Sano Kosei General Hospital ( email )

Japan

Takashi Inoue

Sano Kosei General Hospital ( email )

Japan

Mizuha Hashiguchi

Keiyu Hospital ( email )

Japan

Junko Kagyo

Keiyu Hospital ( email )

Japan

Tetsuya Shiomi

Keiyu Hospital ( email )

Japan

Ho Lee

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Kai Sugihara

Kawasaki Municipal Hospital ( email )

Japan

Nao Omori

Kawasaki Municipal Hospital ( email )

Japan

Koichi Sayama

Kawasaki Municipal Hospital ( email )

Japan

Kengo Otsuka

Nihon Koukan Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine ( email )

Kanagawa
Japan

Naoki Miyao

Nihon University - Department of Internal Medicine ( email )

Japan

Toshio Odani

National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Medical Center - Department of Rheumatology ( email )

Hokkaido
Japan

Takao Mochimaru

National Hospital Organisation Tokyo Medical Center - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Ryosuke Satomi

National Hospital Organisation Tokyo Medical Center - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Yoshitaka Oyamada

National Hospital Organisation Tokyo Medical Center - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Keita Masuzawa

Kitasato University - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takanori Asakura

Keio University - Department of Health Policy and Management ( email )

Japan

Mayuko Watase

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Sohei Nakayama

Kitasato University - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Yusuke Suzuki

Kitasato University - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Rie Baba

Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital ( email )

Tochigi
Japan

Satoshi Okamori

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Daisuke Arai

Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital ( email )

Ichiro Nakachi

Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital ( email )

Tochigi
Japan

Naota Kuwahara

Showa University - Division of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Akiko Fujiwara

Showa University - Division of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takenori Okada

Showa University - Division of Allergology and Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takashi Ishiguro

Saitama Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center ( email )

Kumagaya
Japan

Taisuke Isono

Saitama Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center ( email )

Kumagaya
Japan

Yasushi Makino

Toyohashi Municipal Hospital ( email )

Toyohashi
Japan

Shuko Mashimo

Toyohashi Municipal Hospital ( email )

Toyohashi
Japan

Tatsuya Kaido

Toyohashi Municipal Hospital ( email )

Toyohashi
Japan

Naoto Minematsu

Hino Municipal Hospital ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Soichiro Ueda

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine ( email )

Saitama
Japan

Kazuhiro Minami

Saitama University - Saitama Medical Center ( email )

Japan

Rie Hagiwara

Saitama University - Saitama Medical Center ( email )

Japan

Tadashi Manabe

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takahiro Fukui

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Yohei Funatsu

Tachikawa Hospital - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hidefumi Koh

Tachikawa Hospital - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takashi Yoshiyama

Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association - Respiratory Disease Center, Fukujuji Hospital ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hiroyuki Kokuto

Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association ( email )

Japan

Tatsuya Kusumoto

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Ayano Oashi

Eiju General Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Masayoshi Miyawaki

Eiju General Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Fumitake Saito

Eiju General Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Tetsuo Tani

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Kota Ishioka

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Saeko Takahashi

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Morio Nakamura

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Norihiro Harada

Juntendo University - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Hitoshi Sasano

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Ai Nakamura

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Yu Kusaka

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Takehiko Ohba

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Yasushi Nakano

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital - Department of Internal Medicine ( email )

Kawasaki
Japan

Kazumi Nishio

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital ( email )

Japan

Yukiko Nakajima

Kawasaki Municipal Ida Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Kanagawa
Japan

Shoji Suzuki

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Saitama
Japan

Shuichi Yoshida

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Saitama
Japan

Hiroki Tateno

Saitama City Hospital - Department of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Saitama
Japan

Nobuhiro Kodama

Fukuoka Tokushukai Hospital - Department of General Internal Medicine ( email )

Fukuoka
Japan

Shunsuke Maeda

Fukuoka Tokushukai Hospital - Department of General Internal Medicine ( email )

Fukuoka
Japan

Satoshi Sakamoto

Kurume University - Department of Internal Medicine ( email )

Japan

Masaki Okamoto

Kurume University - Department of Internal Medicine ( email )

Japan

Yoji Nagasaki

Kyushu Medical Center - Division of Infectious Diseases ( email )

1-8-1 Jigyohama
Chuo-ku
Fukuoka City, Fukuoka Province 810-8563
Japan

Akira Umeda

International University of Health and Welfare, Tochigi - Department of General Medicine ( email )

Tochigi
Japan

Kasuya Miyagawa

International University of Health and Welfare, Tochigi - School of Pharmacy ( email )

Tochigi
Japan

Naoto Shimada

International University of Health and Welfare, Tochigi - Department of Respiratory Medicine ( email )

Tochigi
Japan

Kazuto Hagimura

Keio University Hospital Clinical and Translational Research Center ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Kengo Nagashima

Biostatistics Unit, Clinical and Translational Research Center, Keio University Hospital ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Toshiro Sato

Keio University - Department of Organoid Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Yasunori Sato

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ( email )

35 Shinanomachi
Shinjuku, Tokyo 1608582
Japan

Naoki Hasegawa

Keio University, School of Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control ( email )

Japan

Toru Takebayashi

Keio University - Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health ( email )

Minato
Japan

Jin Nakahara

Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine ( email )

35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 1608582
Japan

Masaru Mimura

Keio University - Department of Neuropsychiatry ( email )

Kaoru Ogawa

Keio University - Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Shigeto Shimmura

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology ( email )

35 Shinanomachii
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Kazuno Negishi

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology ( email )

35 Shinanomachii
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Kazuo Tsubota

Keio University - Department of Ophthalmology ( email )

35 Shinanomachii
Tokyo, 160-8582
Japan

Masayuki Amagai

Keio University - Department of Dermatology ( email )

2-15-45 Mita
Minato-ku
Tokyo, 108-8345
Japan

Rei Goto

Keio University - Graduate School of Business Administration ( email )

Japan

Yoko Ibuka

Keio University - Faculty of Economics ( email )

2-15-45 Mita, Ninato-ku
Tokyo 1088345
Japan

Yuko Kitagawa

Keio University - Department of Surgery ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Takanori Kanai

Keio University - Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology ( email )

Japan

Koichi Fukunaga (Contact Author)

Keio University - Division of Pulmonary Medicine ( email )

Tokyo
Japan

Click here to go to TheLancet.com

Paper statistics

Downloads
112
Abstract Views
1,324
PlumX Metrics