Bifrost, an Innovative CO2 Transportation and Storage Project in Denmark
9 Pages Posted: 29 Nov 2022
Date Written: October 26, 2022
Denmark is committed to a 70% reduction of CO2 emissions in 2030, compared to the 1990 level, and to be net-zero by 2050. A strategy for carbon capture, utilization and storage has been put forward as key enabler to meet these climate targets. Denmark has the potential to become a major provider of CO2 transportation and permanent geological storage services in Europe benefiting from underground storage potential from future depleted oil and gas fields and saline aquifer structures. Besides, the country has existing onshore and offshore facilities (wells, offshore facilities, pipelines) that could be converted for this purpose, a central location for national and European emitters, and a highly skilled workforce with vast experience in offshore operations.
The Bifrost project aims at providing CO2 transportation and permanent geological storage capitalizing on existing facilities in the Danish North Sea. The Bifrost concept leverages the assets owned by the Danish Underground Consortium (‘DUC’, consisting of TotalEnergies, Noreco, and Nordsøfonden) and plans to progressively convert depleted gas fields starting with the Harald West field with a first phase targeting circa 3 million tons per annum over a 15-year period. The “all-offshore” development concept for this first phase entails the technical qualification of an innovative floating storage and injection unit for CO2 injection in depleted gas reservoir and associated offshore offloading system for ship-to-ship CO2 transfer. Bifrost project aims at de-risking CO2 injection in Harald East chalk reservoir, a potential play opener for storing CO2 in chalk that is the main reservoir type of the oil and gas fields in the Danish North Sea. Bifrost project will also assess the potential conversion of existing gas pipelines owned and operated by Ørsted for CO2 transportation to connect onshore to offshore CO2 storage sites. In addition to the technological development, Bifrost will investigate monitoring technologies and protocols as well as improve understanding of the socio-economic aspects associated with carbon capture and storage technology.
This article describes the current work-plan of project Bifrost as carried out with the support of the Danish Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Programme (EUDP) by TotalEnergies, on behalf of the DUC partners, Ørsted and DTU, over a two-year period (2022 and 2023).
Keywords: Project Bifrost, Denmark, North Sea, CCS, Offshore, CO2 storage, CO2 monitoring, CO2 transportation, CCS acceptance and preferences, GHGT-16
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