Funding Black High-Growth Startups

96 Pages Posted: 5 Dec 2022 Last revised: 3 May 2023

See all articles by Lisa D. Cook

Lisa D. Cook

Michigan State University - Department of Economics and James Madison College; NBER

Matt Marx

Cornell University, SC Johnson College of Business; NBER

Emmanuel Yimfor

Columbia Business School

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: November 2022

Abstract

We analyze determinants of access to venture capital for Black founders of high-growth startups. We combine image- and name-processing algorithms with clerical review to identify race for over 100,000 startup founders “at risk” for venture funding. Black founders raise roughly one-third as much venture capital in the five years after founding vs. other startups formed in the same year, industry, and state. What explains the gap? We attribute about a third of the gap to four factors: Black startups have smaller founding teams; Black founders are less likely to have worked at the same companies or attended the same schools as investors who fund startups in the same industry and geography; Black startups are less likely to be located in geographies with plentiful venture capital, and Black startups are less likely to have a patent. We then bound our estimates of the funding gap and show that, to explain the gap, omitted variables would have to be nearly four times as important as the variables we fix. The funding gap is not statistically different from zero in later funding stages (post Series B), suggesting that some investors initially hold—but later amend—incorrect beliefs about Black-founded startups. We also exploit the hiring of Black partners and show that they are more likely to fund successful Black startups, consistent with segmented networks.

Suggested Citation

Cook, Lisa D. and Marx, Matt and Yimfor, Emmanuel, Funding Black High-Growth Startups (November 2022). NBER Working Paper No. w30682, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4293609

Lisa D. Cook (Contact Author)

Michigan State University - Department of Economics and James Madison College ( email )

South Case Hall
East Lansing, MI 48825-1205
United States

NBER ( email )

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
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Matt Marx

Cornell University, SC Johnson College of Business ( email )

NBER ( email )

1050 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

Emmanuel Yimfor

Columbia Business School ( email )

3022 Broadway
New York, NY 10027
United States

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