Dscot: An Nft-Based Blockchain Architecture for the Authentication of Iot-Based Smart Devices in Smart Cities

22 Pages Posted: 12 Feb 2023

See all articles by Usman K

Usman K

University of Brunei Darussalam; University of Brunei Darussalam

Owais Ahmed Malik

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Wee Hong Ong

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Mueen Uddin

University of Doha for Science and Technology (UDST)

Abstract

Smart city architecture brings all the underlying architectures, i.e., Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), Internet of Cyber-Physical Things (IoCPT), and Internet of Everything (IoE), together to work as a system under its umbrella. The goal of smart city architecture is to come up with a solution that may integrate all the real-time response applications. However, the cyber-physical space poses threats that can jeopardize the working of a smart city where all the data belonging to people, systems, and processes will be at risk. Various architectures based on centralized and distributed mechanisms support smart cities; however, the security concerns regarding traceability, scalability, security services, platform assistance, and resource management persist. In this paper, private blockchain-based architecture Decentralized Smart City of Things (DSCoT) is proposed. It actively utilizes fog computing for all the users and smart devices connected to a fog node in a particular management system in a smart city, i.e., a smart house or hospital, etc. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have been utilized for representation to define smart device attributes. NFTs are unique and non-interchangeable units of data stored on a digital ledger and are widely used in blockchain-based solutions to represent unique assets. NFTs in the proposed DSCoT architecture provide devices and user authentication (IoT) functionality. DSCoT has been designed to provide a smart city solution that ensures robust security features such as Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability (CIA), and authorization by defining new attributes and functions for Owner, User, Fog, and IoT devices authentication. The evaluation of the proposed functions and components in terms of evaluation cost and time complexity has shown promising results and has been validated over a testnet. Comparatively, the evaluation cost (Gas) for minting DSCoT NFT was approximately 81%, and a DSCoT approve() was approximately 23% more efficient than the other solutions.

Keywords: Blockchain technology, Ethereum, Hyper Ledger Besu, Smart City, Cyber-Physical System, Smart Device, Blockchain Tokenization, Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), Secure communication, Intelligent city, Smart contract.

Suggested Citation

K, Usman and Malik, Owais Ahmed and Ong, Wee Hong and Uddin, Mueen, Dscot: An Nft-Based Blockchain Architecture for the Authentication of Iot-Based Smart Devices in Smart Cities. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4355848 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4355848

Usman K (Contact Author)

University of Brunei Darussalam ( email )

Jalan Tungku Link
Gadong
Bandar Seri Begawan, BE1410
Brunei
+6732460923 (Phone)

University of Brunei Darussalam ( email )

Brunei
+6732460923 (Phone)

Owais Ahmed Malik

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Wee Hong Ong

affiliation not provided to SSRN ( email )

No Address Available

Mueen Uddin

University of Doha for Science and Technology (UDST) ( email )

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