The FED Model: Is it Still With Us?

35 Pages Posted: 22 Feb 2023

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: February 17, 2023


The Fed model, a stable relation between equity and bond yields, with accompanying predictive power for subsequent stocks returns has proved a controversial idea within empirical finance. This paper re-examines the equity-bond yield relation and its predictive power in the light of potential breaks or regime dependence. We argue that while a positive relation exists between the two yields it does not fluctuate around a single stable point. Notably, we demonstrate switching between high and low values of the Fed series, which correspond inversely to movements in the real interest rate. Accounting for such shifts leads to an improvement in relative predictive power over both a linear, non-regime varying, approach and a baseline model. This occurs both in terms of point prediction and directional accuracy, including crash prediction. The results here reveal that the equity and bond yield interaction is informative for investors, but only when accounting for shifts in behaviour.

Keywords: Stock Returns, Fed Model, Breaks, Markov-Switching, Predictability

JEL Classification: C22, G12

Suggested Citation

McMillan, David G., The FED Model: Is it Still With Us? (February 17, 2023). Available at SSRN: or

David G. McMillan (Contact Author)

University of Stirling ( email )

Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA
United Kingdom

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