Immigration and Native Children's Long-Term Outcomes

45 Pages Posted: 14 Mar 2023 Last revised: 10 May 2023

See all articles by Yi-Ju Hung

Yi-Ju Hung

University of Southern California

Date Written: March 1, 2023


This paper examines how immigration affects native children’s economic opportunities leveraging linked U.S. censuses in the early twentieth century. Using the shift-share instrument for county-level immigration exposure, I find that childhood exposure to immigrants enhances native-borns’ adulthood economic performance. However, children of high-skilled fathers enjoy a higher positive impact than their peers, given the same exposure level. I investigate two potential channels and show that immigration-induced into-city migration explains only around 10% of the exposure effect. In addition, immigration encourages native children to advance on the occupational ladder and to specialize in less immigrant-intensive jobs.

Keywords: Immigration, Childhood exposure

JEL Classification: J24, J61, J62, N32

Suggested Citation

Hung, Yi-Ju, Immigration and Native Children's Long-Term Outcomes (March 1, 2023). Available at SSRN: or

Yi-Ju Hung (Contact Author)

University of Southern California ( email )

Los Angeles, CA
United States

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