The Governance of Artificial Intelligence in Canada: Findings and Opportunities from a Review of 84 AI Governance Initiatives
74 Pages Posted: 22 Apr 2023
Date Written: April 10, 2023
In recent years, the effective governance of artificial intelligence (AI) systems has become a strategic necessity for many nations. Among those nations, Canada is particularly noteworthy: Canada was the first nation to implement a national AI strategy, and more recently, Canada’s federal and provincial governments have designed and implemented a wide range of initiatives that attempt to intervene in a variety of potential impacts associated with AI systems. We present a semi-systematic review and synthesis of web content associated with 84 of those AI governance initiatives. Across those initiatives, we find a predominant focus on developing programs, policies, and strategic plans to intervene in industry and innovation, technology production and use, AI research, and public administration. Conversely, we find relatively little focus on developing ethics statements or standards, as well as little focus on intervening in social and workforce development services, AI education and training, and digital infrastructure. With reference to our findings and specific initiatives included in our study, we suggest three opportunities for researchers and four opportunities for practitioners that, if enacted, would strengthen the overall state of Canadian AI governance. We conclude by discussing the empirical, methodological, and practical contributions of our study to AI governance research and practice in Canada as well as in other jurisdictions.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence, governance, policy, strategy, AI ethics, literature review, content analysis
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