A Glass Ceiling at the Playhouse? Gender Gaps in Public and Private Preschool Enrollment in India

35 Pages Posted: 17 May 2023

See all articles by Arindam Nandi

Arindam Nandi

The Population Council; One Health Trust

Soham Sahoo

Indian Institute of Management Bangalore

Nicole Haberland

Population Council, New York, USA

Thoai D. Ngo

Population Council, United States - Poverty, Gender, and Youth Program

Date Written: May 4, 2023

Abstract

India has reduced male-biased gender gaps in primary school enrollment and progression rates in recent years. However, patterns of early childhood education enrollment, selection of preschool, and related gender gaps remain inadequately studied. This study uses data from India’s National Family Health Survey (2019-2021), which collected preschool information for 134,000 children aged 2-4 years, to examine female-male gaps in preschool enrollment. An estimated 40% of children were enrolled in preschools, and among them, 28% were enrolled in private preschools, with substantial variation across states. State, district, and household fixed-effects regressions, which accounted for a wide range of background characteristics of children, show that while preschool enrollment rates were 3.6-4.1% higher among girls than boys, girls were 9.3-16.7% less likely to be enrolled in higher quality private preschools. Using a mother fixed-effects regression, we found that while there was no gender gap in siblings’ preschool enrolment rates, girls were 18.6% less likely to be enrolled in private preschool than their brothers. The relative bias towards males in private preschool enrollment decreased with standard of living and maternal schooling levels. The findings indicate gender discrimination in enrollment in higher quality private preschool against young girls.

Keywords: India, early childhood development; preschool; early childhood education; gender gap

JEL Classification: I24, I25, I28

Suggested Citation

Nandi, Arindam and Sahoo, Soham and Haberland, Nicole and Ngo, Thoai D., A Glass Ceiling at the Playhouse? Gender Gaps in Public and Private Preschool Enrollment in India (May 4, 2023). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4429668 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4429668

Arindam Nandi (Contact Author)

The Population Council ( email )

New York, NY
United States

One Health Trust ( email )

5636 Connecticut Avenue NW,
PO Box 42735
Washington DC, DC 20015
United States

Soham Sahoo

Indian Institute of Management Bangalore ( email )

Bannerghatta Main Road, Bilekahalli
Bengaluru, Karnatak 560076
India

Nicole Haberland

Population Council, New York, USA ( email )

One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza
New York, NY 10017
United States

Thoai D. Ngo

Population Council, United States - Poverty, Gender, and Youth Program ( email )

New York, NY
United States

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