Taking AI Risks Seriously: a New Assessment Model for the AI Act
AI & Society, Springer, Vol.38, N. 3, 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-023-01723-z
8 Pages Posted: 15 May 2023 Last revised: 13 Jul 2023
Date Written: May 14, 2023
The EU Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) defines four risk categories: unacceptable, high, limited, and minimal. However, as these categories statically depend on broad fields of application of AI, the risk magnitude may be wrongly estimated, and the AIA may not be enforced effectively. This problem is particularly challenging when it comes to regulating general-purpose AI (GPAI), which has versatile and often unpredictable applications. Recent amendments to the compromise text, though introducing context-specific assessments, remain insufficient. To address this, we propose applying the risk categories to specific AI scenarios, rather than solely to fields of application, using a risk assessment model that integrates the AIA with the risk approach arising from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and related literature. This integrated model enables the estimation of AI risk magnitude by considering the interaction between (a) risk determinants, (b) individual drivers of determinants, and (c) multiple risk types. We illustrate this model using large language models (LLMs) as an example.
Keywords: risk assessment, Artificial Intelligence, AI Act, climate change, EU, IPCC
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