Revisiting Code as Law: Regulation and Extended Reality

60 Pages Posted: 20 Sep 2023

Date Written: September 1, 2023


Today we are on the cusp of extended reality, just as we were on the cusp of the internet 25 years ago. This Article revisits Lessig’s seminal theory of code-as-law and updates its application to this emerging technology. It identifies what parts of this analysis endure, what parts should be reconsidered, and explores what this new application can teach us about how society responds when self-governance fails.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, virtual reality, extended reality, augmented reality, governance, digital governance, tech governance, code, law, code as law, regulation

Suggested Citation

Heller, Brittan, Revisiting Code as Law: Regulation and Extended Reality (September 1, 2023). Available at SSRN: or

Brittan Heller (Contact Author)

Stanford Cyber Policy Center ( email )

Encina Hall
616 Jane Stanford Way
Stanford, CA 94305
United States

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