Which Industries are the Best Employers for Women? An Application of a New Equal Employment Opportunity Index

FRB of Atlanta Working Paper No. 2003-11

29 Pages Posted: 13 Nov 2003

See all articles by Julie L. Hotchkiss

Julie L. Hotchkiss

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; Georgia State University - Department of Economics

Mary E. Graham

Clarkson University - School of Business

Date Written: July 2003

Abstract

This paper introduces and proposes a policy application for a new Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Index. The index is comprised of multiple measures of employers' human resource management outcomes and is designed to reflect employers' systemic EEO efforts. The index is applied to industry data from the Current Population Survey, and the tenets of Total Quality Management (TQM) theory are used for interpretation of results. It is found that the mining/construction industry provides a relatively inhospitable climate for women in the form, primarily, of a high degree of gender-related occupational segregation. The financial industry demonstrated the overall greatest gains for women during the 1990s. Closer examination of these industries with very good and very poor outcomes highlights the importance of addressing 'special causes' of industry performance on the index.

Keywords: discrimination, Total Quality Management, glass ceiling, occupational segregation, gender wage differentials

JEL Classification: J71, J78, J31, M11

Suggested Citation

Hotchkiss, Julie L. and Graham, Mary E., Which Industries are the Best Employers for Women? An Application of a New Equal Employment Opportunity Index (July 2003). FRB of Atlanta Working Paper No. 2003-11. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=457441 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.457441

Julie L. Hotchkiss (Contact Author)

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta ( email )

Research Department
1000 Peachtree Street N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30309-4470
United States
404-498-8198 (Phone)
404-498-8058 (Fax)

Georgia State University - Department of Economics ( email )

P.O. Box 3992
Atlanta, GA 30302-3992
United States

Mary E. Graham

Clarkson University - School of Business ( email )

Potsdam, NY 13699-5780
United States

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