International AI Institutions: A Literature Review of Models, Examples, and Proposals

50 Pages Posted: 23 Sep 2023 Last revised: 25 Oct 2023

See all articles by Matthijs M. Maas

Matthijs M. Maas

Institute for Law & AI; Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, University of Cambridge; University of Cambridge - Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence

José Jaime Villalobos

Legal Priorities Project

Date Written: September 22, 2023

Abstract

The question of how to ensure adequate international governance of artificial intelligence (AI) has come to the center of global attention. This literature review examines the range of institutional models that have been proposed as the basis for new international organizations focused on AI. It reviews and discusses these proposals for new international AI institutions, under a taxonomy of seven distinct institutional models that have been offered by scholars and practitioners. The models we include in this review are: (1) scientific consensus-building; (2) political consensus-building and norm-setting; (3) coordination of policy and regulation; (4) enforcement of standards or restrictions; (5) stabilization and emergency response; (6) international joint research; and (7) distribution of benefits or access.

For each model, we provide (i) a description of the model’s functions and types; (ii) the most common examples of each model; (iii) some examples that are somewhat underexplored in the literature but that show promise; (iv) a review of proposals for the application of that model to the international regulation of AI; and (v) critiques of the model both generally and in its potential application to AI. In sum, we review more than thirty-three commonly invoked examples of these institutional models, twenty-two rarely-explored but promising alternate institutional examples, and forty-eight proposals for new AI institutions. Finally, we sketch five pathways for further research.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, AI governance

JEL Classification: K33

Suggested Citation

Maas, Matthijs M. and Villalobos Ruiz, José Jaime, International AI Institutions: A Literature Review of Models, Examples, and Proposals (September 22, 2023). AI Foundations Report 1, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4579773 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4579773

Matthijs M. Maas (Contact Author)

Institute for Law & AI ( email )

Cambridge, MA
United States

Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, University of Cambridge ( email )

Trinity Ln
Cambridge, CB2 1TN
United Kingdom

University of Cambridge - Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence ( email )

United Kingdom

José Jaime Villalobos Ruiz

Legal Priorities Project ( email )

1427 Cambridge St
#5
Cambridge, MA 02139
United States

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