The El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Salinity of Land and Water

18 Pages Posted: 3 Jan 2024

See all articles by Nicola Limodio

Nicola Limodio

Bocconi University; Bocconi University - IGIER - Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research; Bocconi University - Baffi Carefin Centre; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

Filippo De Marco

Bocconi University - Department of Finance; Bocconi University - IGIER - Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research; CEPR Financial Economics

Ilaria Dal Barco

Bocconi University - IGIER - Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research

Date Written: December 4, 2023

Abstract

The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a periodic climate phenomenon with important consequences for weather and socioeconomic variables worldwide. This paper investigates the effect of El Niño on the concentration of salts in soils and fresh water. Our analysis shows effects that are statistically significant and large in magnitude. In particular, in response to El Niño events, soil salinity increases by 21% in the northern region of the United States, where average temperatures are positively affected, while it decreases by 29% on average in the southern tiers of the country, where temperatures decline. Similarly, fresh water salinity increases by 9% in warmer counties, while it is 53% lower in cooler counties.

Keywords: water and soil salinity; El Niño; climate; ecosystems

JEL Classification: q54

Suggested Citation

Limodio, Nicola and De Marco, Filippo and Dal Barco, Ilaria, The El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Salinity of Land and Water (December 4, 2023). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4652705 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4652705

Nicola Limodio

Bocconi University ( email )

Via Roentgen 1
Milano, MI 20136
Italy

HOME PAGE: http://www.nicolalimodio.com

Bocconi University - IGIER - Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research ( email )

Via Roentgen 1
Milan, 20136
Italy

Bocconi University - Baffi Carefin Centre ( email )

Via Roentgen 1
Milan
Italy

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Filippo De Marco (Contact Author)

Bocconi University - Department of Finance ( email )

Department of Finance
Via Roentgen 1
Milano, MI 20136
Italy

Bocconi University - IGIER - Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research ( email )

Via Roentgen 1
Milan, 20136
Italy

CEPR Financial Economics ( email )

London
United Kingdom

Ilaria Dal Barco

Bocconi University - IGIER - Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research ( email )

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