From Open to Closed Societies: Inequality, Migration, and Women Rights

46 Pages Posted: 19 Feb 2024

See all articles by Marco Casari

Marco Casari

University of Bologna

Maurizio Lisciandra

LUMSA University

Ali Seyhun Saral

Institute for Advanced Study In Toulouse (IAST); University of Bologna - Department of Economics

Abstract

What makes a society open or close to migration? We track six centuries of institutional history of hundreds of communities in an Italian region and observed a gradual closure to outsiders and an erosion of women's property rights. This empirical and computational study traces the trajectory of institutional change, identifying the mechanisms behind it. Resource inequality spurred migration, prompting wealthier communities to restrict access to common resources; these restrictions targeted women. This led to a domino effect in institutional change and a lock-in of a patrilineal system. A subsequent centralized action reinstated an open and egalitarian system, which would have been impossible to reach bottom-up. Our computational model not only aligns with historical patterns but also illustrates how gender-biased institutions can emerge from strategic incentives rather than ideology. This research provides insights into contemporary issues of citizenship, migration, and property rights, particularly in developing countries.

Keywords: agent-based model, commons, gender discrimination, networks, polycentic system

Suggested Citation

Casari, Marco and Lisciandra, Maurizio and Saral, Ali Seyhun, From Open to Closed Societies: Inequality, Migration, and Women Rights. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4731716 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4731716

Marco Casari (Contact Author)

University of Bologna ( email )

Piazza Scaravilli 2
Bologna, 40100
Italy

Maurizio Lisciandra

LUMSA University

Department of Law, Economics, and Communication
Via Filippo Parlatore 65
Palermo, 90145
Italy

HOME PAGE: http://https://www.lumsa.it/en

Ali Seyhun Saral

Institute for Advanced Study In Toulouse (IAST) ( email )

Université Toulouse 1 Capitole
1, esplanade de l'Université
Toulouse, 31080
France

University of Bologna - Department of Economics ( email )

Bologna
Italy

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