Procedural Barriers to Political Candidacy: Gender, Discouragement, and Candidate Persistence

53 Pages Posted: 22 Mar 2024

See all articles by Marco Faravelli

Marco Faravelli

The University of Queensland

Umair Khalil

Deakin University

Sundar Ponnusamy

University of Adelaide

Date Written: December 24, 2023

Abstract

A procedural rule in Indian elections requires candidates to pay a nominal deposit, which is forfeited on obtaining fewer than one-sixth of the votes. Forfeiture diminishes female re-contesting by 12.6 percentage points (pp) in the following election (relative effect size of 60%). We find no such effects for men. These effects are persistent and discourage female candidates in the long term as well. States with more regressive gender norms exhibit stronger findings, with female forfeiters also being 11 pp less likely to win the following election. We enhance our analysis by conducting a survey experiment with representative voters.

Keywords: Female under-representation, Failure, Discrimination, Election deposit, Forfeiture

JEL Classification: J16, D72

Suggested Citation

Faravelli, Marco and Khalil, Umair and Ponnusamy, Sundar, Procedural Barriers to Political Candidacy: Gender, Discouragement, and Candidate Persistence (December 24, 2023). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4736092 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4736092

Marco Faravelli

The University of Queensland ( email )

Australia

Umair Khalil (Contact Author)

Deakin University ( email )

221 Burwood Highway
Burwood, Victoria 3125
Australia

Sundar Ponnusamy

University of Adelaide ( email )

North Terrace
Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Australia

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