Conflict and Gender Norms

86 Pages Posted: 22 Mar 2024

See all articles by Mark Dincecco

Mark Dincecco

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor

James Fenske

University of Warwick

Bishnupriya Gupta

University of Warwick - Department of Economics

Anil Menon

University of California, Merced

Date Written: March 7, 2024

Abstract

We study the relationship between exposure to historical conflict involving heavy weaponry and male-favoring gender norms. We argue that the physical nature of such conflict produced cultural norms favoring males and male offspring. We focus on spatial variation in gender norms across India, a dynamic developing economy in which gender inequality persists. We show robust evidence that areas with high exposure to pre-colonial conflict are significantly more likely to exhibit male-favoring gender norms as measured by male-biased sex ratios and crimes against women. We document how conflict-related gender norms have been transmitted over time via male-favoring folkloric traditions, the gender identity of temple gods, and male-biased marriage practices, and have been transmitted across space by migrants originally from areas with high conflict exposure.

Keywords: War, Gender Norms, Cultural Beliefs, Development, India, History

JEL Classification: J16, N45, 011, P46, Z13

Suggested Citation

Dincecco, Mark and Fenske, James and Gupta, Bishnupriya and Menon, Anil, Conflict and Gender Norms (March 7, 2024). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=4751560 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4751560

Mark Dincecco (Contact Author)

University of Michigan at Ann Arbor ( email )

HOME PAGE: http://sites.google.com/umich.edu/dincecco

James Fenske

University of Warwick ( email )

Gibbet Hill Rd.
Coventry, CV4 8UW
United Kingdom

Bishnupriya Gupta

University of Warwick - Department of Economics ( email )

Coventry CV4 7AL
United Kingdom

Anil Menon

University of California, Merced ( email )

5200 Lake Road
Merced, CA CA 95343
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://sites.google.com/view/anilmenon/bio

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Downloads
96
Abstract Views
279
Rank
506,768
PlumX Metrics