Simulation Water Movement Through the GCL Cover Using a Physical Model and HYDRUS-1D Software

22 Pages Posted: 16 Apr 2024

See all articles by Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari

Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari

American University in Dubai; Manchester Metropolitan University

Date Written: April 7, 2024


The most common problems of the landfill site are environmental degradation and groundwater contamination caused by leachate produced during the decomposition process of organic material and rainfall. Most of the landfill sites in developed countries have used Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) as landfill leachate barriers to protect the environment. In this article, the simulation of movement of water through the GCL liner, using Hydrus-1D software, was investigated. Twelve different Geosynthetic clay liners, including two types of geotextiles (PP and PET), two types of bentonite (A, B) and three bentonite mass per unit area (4, 4.5 and 5 kg / m2) were tested. Analysis of residual errors, differences between the measured and simulated values, was performed to evaluate the model performance, based on the mean absolute error (MAE), root means square error (RMSE), the coefficient of determination (CD), modeling efficiency (EF) and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). The outputs from the models were compared against the measured infiltrated water and water drained data. Simulated and measured infiltrated water and drained water were in excellent agreement. Modeling efficiency in estimating the drainage water and infiltrated water are 0.81 and 0.97, respectively. Additionally, the mean absolute error and root mean square error were 1.29 and 1.45 respectively for estimating the drained water and were 4.23 and 4.71 for estimating infiltrated water respectively. The simulation results showed that although the model is able to perform a good estimation of the infiltration and drainage process. However, the estimated values of infiltrated water and drained water does not match with observed data in the laboratory. This shows that HYDRUS-1D software does not consider the hydrophobicity of the geotextiles.

Keywords: Geosynthetic Clay liners, Landfill, HYDRUS-1D, Modeling Efficiency, Groundwater Contamination, Geotextiles,

Suggested Citation

Ostad-Ali-Askari, Kaveh, Simulation Water Movement Through the GCL Cover Using a Physical Model and HYDRUS-1D Software (April 7, 2024). Available at SSRN: or

Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari (Contact Author)

American University in Dubai ( email )

Dubai, UAE 28282
United Arab Emirates

Manchester Metropolitan University ( email )

All Saints
Manchester, M15 6BH
United Kingdom

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