Religious Worship Attendance in America: Evidence from Cellphone Data

75 Pages Posted: 8 May 2024

See all articles by Devin G. Pope

Devin G. Pope

University of Chicago - Booth School of Business

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: May 8, 2024


Religious worship is integral to the lives of millions of Americans. In this paper, I provide a descriptive analysis of religious worship attendance using geodata from smartphones for over 2 million Americans in 2019. I establish several key findings. First, 73% of people step into a religious place of worship at least once during the year on the primary day of worship (e.g. Sundays for most Christian churches). However, only 5% of Americans attend services “weekly”, far fewer than the ~22% who report to do so in surveys. The number of occasional vs. frequent attenders varies substantially by religion. I estimate that approximately 45M Americans attend worship services in a typical week of the year, but with large changes around Holidays (e.g. Easter). I document how start times, duration of attendance, and average household income all differ meaningfully across religious traditions. The intensity of religious observance correlates with a host of other activities. For example, relative to non-attenders and infrequent attenders, frequent religious attenders are less likely to go to strip clubs, liquor stores, and casinos. While cell phone data has limitations, this paper provides a unique way of understanding worship attendance and its correlates.

JEL Classification: Z12

Suggested Citation

Pope, Devin G., Religious Worship Attendance in America: Evidence from Cellphone Data (May 8, 2024). University of Chicago, Becker Friedman Institute for Economics Working Paper No. 2024-58, Available at SSRN: or

Devin G. Pope (Contact Author)

University of Chicago - Booth School of Business ( email )

5807 S. Woodlawn Avenue
Chicago, IL 60637
United States

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