Empirical Analysis of National Income and So2 Emissions In Selected European Countries

35 Pages Posted: 19 Feb 2004

See all articles by Anil Markandya

Anil Markandya

Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3); University of Bath

Alexander Golub

Environmental Defense

Suzette Pedroso

World Bank

Date Written: January 2004


Data on GDP per capita and sulfur emissions for twelve European countries were analyzed to determine the relationship between emissions and income in these countries. As a whole, the relationship between sulfur emissions and per capita income is a fourth order polynomial and not a quadratic one as found in most studies. When countries were examined individually, seven out of the twelve countries depicted the same relationship. Looking closely at the regulations restricting sulfur emissions in the UK, the impact of all regulations supported the inverted U-shaped Kuznets curve. Individually, however, it is found that only two regulations have statistically significant impacts: Smoke Abatement Act in 1926 (reduced the amount of sulfur associated with a given level of GDP); and Clean Air Act in 1956 (increased the amount of sulfur emissions associated with a given level of GDP).

Keywords: Environmental Kuznet's Curve, Europe, Sulfur dioxide emission

JEL Classification: C33, Q53, Q58

Suggested Citation

Markandya, Anil and Golub, Alexander and Pedroso, Suzette, Empirical Analysis of National Income and So2 Emissions In Selected European Countries (January 2004). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=491543 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.491543

Anil Markandya (Contact Author)

Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3)

Gran Vía 35-2
Bilbao, Vizcaya 48009

University of Bath ( email )

Claverton Down
Bath, BA2 7AY
United Kingdom

Alexander Golub

Environmental Defense ( email )

New York, Nat'l Headquarters
257 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10010
United States
202-387-3500 (Phone)

Suzette Pedroso

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics