Citations (6)


Footnotes (2)



Limited Liability

William J. Carney

Emory University School of Law

Encyclopedia of Law and Economics, 1998

Limited liability has been known in Europe since at least the twelfth century, and appeared later in England and throughout the remainder of the developed world. Limited liability can be achieved by private contractual arrangements, by the use of limited liability forms of enterprise, by other statutory limits on liability, and by bankruptcy. The principal advantage of limited liability is in encouraging investment by passive investors in risky enterprises, particularly where these investors are poor monitors of managers. Joint and several liability is a particular deterrent to investment by wealthy investors, who are likely to bear all of the costs of judgment. Pro rata liability shifts collection costs from wealthy investors who must seek contribution from other investors to judgment creditors, who must collect from all investors if they are to recover the entire judgment.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 27

JEL Classification: G38, K13, K22

Open PDF in Browser Download This Paper

Date posted: January 13, 1998  

Suggested Citation

Carney, William J., Limited Liability. Encyclopedia of Law and Economics, 1998. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=50563 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.50563

Contact Information

William J. Carney (Contact Author)
Emory University School of Law ( email )
1301 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30322
United States
404-727-6807 (Phone)
404-727-6820 (Fax)

Feedback to SSRN

Paper statistics
Abstract Views: 4,502
Downloads: 1,040
Download Rank: 14,621
Citations:  6
Footnotes:  2
People who downloaded this paper also downloaded:
1. The Essential Elements of Corporate Law
By John Armour, Henry Hansmann, ...