The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity

43 Pages Posted: 9 Apr 2004

See all articles by Dina Abu-Ghaida

Dina Abu-Ghaida

World Bank

Stephan Klasen

University of Goettingen (Gottingen) - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration; CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute); IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Date Written: February 2004

Abstract

At the Millennium Summit, the world community pledged to promote gender equality and chose as a specific target the achievement of gender equity in primary and secondary education by the year 2005 in every country of the world. Based on the findings from a growing empirical literature that suggests that gender equity in education promotes economic growth and reduce fertility, child mortality, and undernutrition, we estimate what the costs in terms of growth, and forgone fertility, mortality and undernutrition reduction, will be for the 45 countries that are, on current projections, unlikely to meet the target. Our estimates suggest that, by 2005, the countries that are off track are likely to suffer 0.1-0.3 percentage points lower per capita growth rates as a result and will have 0.1-0.4 more children per woman, and, by 2015, an average of 15 per 1000 higher rates of under five mortality and 2.5 percentage points higher prevalence of underweight children under five. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the results are quite robust to using different specifications and approaches to estimating these losses.

Keywords: gender bias, education, millennium development goals, growth

JEL Classification: I2, J7, J13, J16

Suggested Citation

Abu-Ghaida, Dina and Klasen, Stephan, The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity (February 2004). IZA Discussion Paper No. 1031. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=515945

Dina Abu-Ghaida

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Stephan Klasen (Contact Author)

University of Goettingen (Gottingen) - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration ( email )

Platz der Goettinger Sieben 3
Goettingen, 37073
Germany
+49-551-397303 (Phone)
+49-551-397302 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: www.vwl.wiso.uni-goettingen.de/klasen.html

CESifo (Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute)

Poschinger Str. 5
Munich, DE-81679
Germany

HOME PAGE: http://www.CESifo.de

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072
Germany

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