Europeanisation and the Uneven Convergence of Environmental Policy: Explaining the Geography of EMAS
Environment and Planning C, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 881-897, 2004
39 Pages Posted: 24 Mar 2004 Last revised: 27 Jun 2010
Date Written: August 1, 2004
This paper seeks to advance current understanding of uneven convergence in the context of EU environmental policy, and specifically, the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). Using a large sample, quantitative methodology, we examine three broad sets of determinants hypothesised to influence geographic patterns of policy convergence: (1) cross-national market integration; (2) compatibility between the domestic regulatory context and European policy requirements; and (3) bottom-up pressure from market and societal actors. Our analysis provides empirical support for all three hypothesised determinants. We find that measures of import-export ties, regulatory burden, past policy adoptions, environmental demand from civil society and levels of economic productivity, are all statistically significant predictors of national EMAS counts. Against a backdrop of geographically diverse regulatory institutions, societal conditions and trading relationships, we conclude that unevenness is an inevitable feature of Europeanisation.
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