Efficiency in Bulgaria's Schools: A Nonparametric Study

22 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016

Date Written: February 1995


More efficient use of school classrooms in Bulgaria's sparsely populated rural areas could free up funds to spend on other educational essentials

In Eastern European countries in large social sectors such as education, inefficiency and technical deficiencies are the legacy of the old command economy.

Bogetic and Chattophadyay examine the technical efficiency of classroom use (defined as the number of classes per classroom) in one transitional economy: Bulgaria. They examine that concept of efficiency in 199 urban and rural municipalities, using data envelopment analysis to generate efficiency scores. Those scores - discussed in terms of frequency and regional distribution - are then regressed on several socioeconomic variables.

The researchers find significant relationships between the efficiency scores, on the one hand, and, on the other, the proportion of students in the population under age 20 (demand indicator), the number of teachers (variable input), the percentage of the municipal budget spent on education, and the degree of urbanization.

Efficiency in the use of classrooms (in terms of classes) varies considerably among municipalities, and efficiency is highest in the capital city of Sofia. To the extent that some variation in efficiency reflects demand or demographic factors, there is little that policy can do to change the pattern. But some changes in municipal policy could increase the efficiency of classroom use without jeopardizing the fundamental learning objective. In some rural areas, for example, where there are few students and classroom utilization is low, it may be possible to consolidate several grades into multigrade classes and reduce the size of the teaching (and nonteaching) staff, while maintaining the quality of learning and maximizing the use of such fixed inputs as classrooms.

To the extent that it is possible to use such classrooms more efficiently, savings could be generated in the municipalities that need them most: in demographically sparse, poor municipalities with a weak economic base. Those savings could then be reallocated to other educational essentials, such as equipment and materials.

This paper - a product of the Country Operations Division, Europe and Central Asia, Country Department I - is part of a larger effort in the region to study social issues during the transition in South-Eastern European countries.

Suggested Citation

Bogetic, Zeljko and Chattopadhyay, Sajal K., Efficiency in Bulgaria's Schools: A Nonparametric Study (February 1995). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1422. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=569260

Zeljko Bogetic (Contact Author)

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Sajal K. Chattopadhyay

University of Connecticut

Storrs, CT 06269
United States

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