How Strong is Co-Movement in Employment Over the Business Cycle? Evidence from State/Industry Data

FRB Philadelphia Working Paper No. 03-5

31 Pages Posted: 27 Jul 2004

See all articles by Gerald A. Carlino

Gerald A. Carlino

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

Robert H. DeFina

Villanova University

Date Written: March 2003

Abstract

This study measures the extent of co-movement in employment across states and industries at business-cycle frequencies. The strength of co-movement is quantified using the bi-variate and multi-variate measures of cohesion developed in Crous, Forni, and Reichlin (2001). The data indicate that cohesion is generally positive for the state/industry pairs, although the distribution masses around a relatively low value. The results suggest that cohesion has risen over time and that cohesion increases with spatial aggregation. Evidence is presented revealing that the measured degree of co-movement is sensitive to the chosen periodicity of the data and that there is much greater cohesion across states for a given industry than across different industries within a state. An investigation into the sources of cross-state variation in cohesion reveals that important determinants include the strength of input-output linkages within each state, the different effects of monetary policy actions on each state's employment, and the degree of industrial diversity within a state. No state-level support is found for Shea's (1996) hypothesis that industries that locate together co-move to a greater extent than do those that are more spatially diffused.

Keywords: Business Cycles

Suggested Citation

Carlino, Gerald A. and DeFina, Robert H., How Strong is Co-Movement in Employment Over the Business Cycle? Evidence from State/Industry Data (March 2003). FRB Philadelphia Working Paper No. 03-5. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=569823 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.569823

Gerald A. Carlino (Contact Author)

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia ( email )

Ten Independence Mall
Philadelphia, PA 19106-1574
United States
215-574-6434 (Phone)
215-574-4364 (Fax)

Robert H. DeFina

Villanova University ( email )

Villanova, PA 19085
United States

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