European and National Identities in the Eu's Old and New Member States: Ethnic, Civic, Instrumental and Symbolic Components

European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Vol. 8, No. 11

37 Pages Posted: 1 Aug 2004

See all articles by Antonia M. Ruiz Jiménez

Antonia M. Ruiz Jiménez

Complutense University of Madrid

Jaroslaw Józef Górniak

Jagiellonian University - Economics

Maren Kandulla

Independent

Paszkal Kiss

Eötvös Loránd University

Ankica Kosic

European University Institute - Department of Political and Social Sciences (SPS)

Abstract

In this paper we empirically test three of the most significant theories about the emergence of a European identity. The three approaches considered here are, respectively: First, a cultural theory, which understands identities as being based on ethno-cultural factors generated through a long-term (historical) process; second, an instrumental theory, which conceives of identities as being based on self-interested calculation (whether economic or political); and a third, civic theory, which understands identities as being based on agreement over rules for peaceful political co-existence. Our empirical test of these theories exploits Eurobarometer data. In recent years, many researchers have become increasingly dissatisfied with the way these surveys poll attitudes towards the EU.

We have contributed to this debate by designing special new questions to measure national and European identities which were included in Eurobarometer 57.2 and are used here for this analysis.

Our results provide only partial support for the theories mentioned above. We find that national and European identities are compatible. This is, in part, because while national identities are largely cultural, European identities are primarily instrumental. However, we also find that there is a sufficient European common cultural ground for a European identity to emerge. We have also confirmed that, because national and European identities are different, the development of a European identity does not necessarily imply the transfer of loyalties from the national to the supranational level. In all the countries analysed here, attachment to the nation remains strong, and certainly greater than attachment to Europe. We also show that it is harder for a European identity to develop in countries with a strong sense of national pride.

Keywords: European identity, nationality, public opinion, Austria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Czech Republic, Poland, Spain, U.K., political science, EIoP

Suggested Citation

Ruiz Jiménez, Antonia M. and Górniak, Jaroslaw Józef and Kandulla, Maren and Kiss, Paszkal and Kosic, Ankica, European and National Identities in the Eu's Old and New Member States: Ethnic, Civic, Instrumental and Symbolic Components. European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Vol. 8, No. 11, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=570601

Antonia M. Ruiz Jiménez (Contact Author)

Complutense University of Madrid ( email )

Carretera de Humera s/n
Madrid 28223, Madrid 28223
Spain

Jaroslaw Józef Górniak

Jagiellonian University - Economics ( email )

Collegium Novum
Cracow
Poland

Maren Kandulla

Independent ( email )

Paszkal Kiss

Eötvös Loránd University ( email )

Budapest
Hungary

Ankica Kosic

European University Institute - Department of Political and Social Sciences (SPS) ( email )

Villa Schifanoia
133 via Bocaccio
Florence
Italy

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