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The Activist in All of Us: Varieties of Action and Low Power Attempts to Challenge Status Hierarchies

45 Pages Posted: 9 Oct 2004  

Paul V. Martorana

City University of New York (CUNY), Baruch College

Adam D. Galinsky

Columbia Business School - Management

Hayagreeva Rao

Stanford Graduate School of Business

Date Written: October 9, 2004

Abstract

When will individuals accept or reject systems that subordinate them, when will they take actions that will challgenge these status hierarchies, and when will such challenges be more intense, overt and non-normative? Recent research suggests that individuals will justify and maintain systems that subordinate them (Jost & Banaji, 1994), yet we suggest that certain boundary conditions predict when individuals will no longer accept their place in such systems. We propose a model that examines how multiple factors - a sense of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld & Anderson, 2003), emotions associated with power (Tiedens, 2001a), and perceptions of the system's legitimacy, stability and permeability to individual advancement (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) - predict when those in low power will act against authority or when they will act to justify and maintain such systems. We also suggest that the level and type of action taken against hierarchies changes as more of the elements (i.e. sense of power, emotions, perceptions of the status hierarchy) of our model are present. We predict that the actions taken against hierarchies become more overt and non-normative as more of these factors are present.

Keywords: Power, Emotions, Perceptions of Justice

JEL Classification: D74

Suggested Citation

Martorana, Paul V. and Galinsky, Adam D. and Rao, Hayagreeva, The Activist in All of Us: Varieties of Action and Low Power Attempts to Challenge Status Hierarchies (October 9, 2004). IACM 17th Annual Conference Paper. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=573566 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.573566

Paul V. Martorana (Contact Author)

City University of New York (CUNY), Baruch College ( email )

17 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10021
United States

Adam D. Galinsky

Columbia Business School - Management ( email )

3022 Broadway
New York, NY 10027
United States

Hayagreeva Rao

Stanford Graduate School of Business ( email )

655 Knight Way
Stanford, CA 94305-5015
United States
(650) 724-7708 (Phone)
(650) 725-7979 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://faculty-gsb.stanford.edu/rao/contact.html

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