The Silent Llc Revolution - the Social Cost of Academic Neglect

Creighton Law Review Vol. 38, No. 1, Fall 2004

86 Pages Posted: 13 Nov 2004


The law of Business Associations usually develops slowly. The business forms that were dominant until the end of the 20th century have been in existence for centuries. However, as the new data set examined in detail demonstrates, in the last decade a revolution has taken place. Contrary to conclusions reached in leading articles published as recently as 2000, limited liability companies have now become the business form of choice for small firms in a majority of the states. In 2003, more LLCs than corporations were formed in 29 states. In 11 other states over 45% of new business filings were for LLCs.

This article explains why LLCs have become so popular and examines the state-specific peculiarities that have prevented them from overtaking corporations in a handful of important jurisdictions. The LLC revolution has been practitioner-driven. This article contends that there has been a dereliction of duty by those who usually disseminate cutting-edge developments in the law. Teaching materials, legal scholarship, curricular offerings and bar examinations have largely neglected the recent sea change in the law of business organizations.

The article concludes with a preliminary LLC research agenda for academics. The need for rationalization of questions relating to the operating agreement, issues of authority, fiduciary duties and dissolution are highlighted in hopes of stimulating more research in this area.

Keywords: Limited Liability Companies, Business Associations, Partnerships, Legal Education

JEL Classification: K20, K22

Suggested Citation

Friedman, Howard M., The Silent Llc Revolution - the Social Cost of Academic Neglect. Creighton Law Review Vol. 38, No. 1, Fall 2004, Available at SSRN:

Howard M. Friedman (Contact Author)

University of Toledo College of Law ( email )

2801 W. Bancroft Street
Toledo, OH 43606
United States
419-530-2911 (Phone)
419-530-2821 (Fax)

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