Shareholder Wealth Effects and Bid Negotiation in Freeze-Out Deals: Are Minority Shareholders Left Out in the Cold?
44 Pages Posted: 24 Aug 2004 Last revised: 4 Mar 2018
Date Written: June 29, 2005
This paper examines the shareholder wealth effects of bids by controlling shareholders seeking to acquire the remaining minority equity stake in a firm - deals commonly referred to as minority freeze-outs. Minority claimants in freeze-out offers receive an allocation of deal surplus at the bid announcement that exceeds their pro-rata claim on the firm. An analysis of bid outcomes and renegotiation indicate that minority claimants and their agents exercise significant bargaining power during freeze-out proposals. Overall, our results suggest that legal standards and economic incentives are sufficient to deter self-dealing by controllers during freeze-out bids.
Keywords: Merger, tender offer, acquisition, minority shareholder, squeeze-out, freeze-out
JEL Classification: G34, K22
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation