Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches
Kellogg Finance Dept. Working Paper No. 329
68 Pages Posted: 5 Feb 2005
Date Written: May, 2006
In both corporate finance and asset pricing empirical work, researchers are often confronted with panel data. In these data sets, the residuals may be correlated across firms or across time, and OLS standard errors can be biased. Historically, the two literatures have used different solutions to this problem. Corporate finance has relied on clustered standard errors, while asset pricing has used the Fama-MacBeth procedure. This paper examines the different methods used in the literature and explains when the different methods yield the same (and correct) standard errors and when they diverge. The intent is to provide intuition as to why the different approaches sometimes give different answers and give researchers guidance for their use.
Keywords: Clustered standard errors, Rogers standard errors, White standard errors, Fama-MacBeth standard errors, Fixed effect models, Panel Data
JEL Classification: G30, G12, C23
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation