Trade Reform and Poverty in the Philippines: A Computable General Equilibrium Microsimulation Analysis

CIRPEE Working Paper No. 05-13

28 Pages Posted: 17 May 2005 Last revised: 16 Jul 2018

See all articles by Caesar B. Cororaton

Caesar B. Cororaton

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

John Cockburn

Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP); Université Laval; Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP)

Date Written: May 1, 2005

Abstract

The paper employs an integrated CGE-microsimulation approach to analyze the poverty effects of tariff reduction. The results indicate that the tariff cuts implemented between 1994 and 2000 were generally poverty-reducing, primarily through the substantial reduction in consumer prices they engendered. However, the reduction is much greater in the National Capital Region (NCR), where poverty incidence is already lowest, than in other areas, especially rural, where poverty incidence is highest. Tariff cuts lower the cost of local production and bring about real exchange rate depreciation. Since the non-food manufacturing sector dominates exports in terms of export share and export intensity, the general equilibrium effects of tariff reduction is an expansion of this sector and a contraction in the agricultural sector. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the relative returns to factors, such as capital, used intensively in the non-food manufacturing sector and a fall in returns to unskilled labor. As rural households depend more on unskilled labor income, income inequality worsens as a result.

Keywords: Computable general equilibrium, microsimulation, international trade, poverty, Philippines

JEL Classification: D33, D58, E27, F13, F14, I32, O15, O53

Suggested Citation

Cororaton, Caesar B. and Cockburn, John, Trade Reform and Poverty in the Philippines: A Computable General Equilibrium Microsimulation Analysis (May 1, 2005). CIRPEE Working Paper No. 05-13. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=721623 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.721623

Caesar B. Cororaton

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ( email )

1201 Eye St, NW,
Washington, DC 20005
United States

John Cockburn (Contact Author)

Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) ( email )

P.O. Box 30772-00100
ICIPE - Duduville Campus, Kasarani
Nairobi
Kenya

Université Laval ( email )

Dept. of Economics
Québec, Quebec G1V 0A6
Canada

Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) ( email )

Duduville Campus, Kasarani
P.O. Box 30772-00100
Nairobi
Kenya

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