One Public Religion, Many Private Religions: John Adams and the 1780 Massachusetts Constitution
"One Public Religion, Many Private Religions: John Adams and the 1780 Massachusetts Constitution," in Daniel L. Dreisbach, Mark D. Hall, and Jeffery R. Morrison, eds., The Founders on God and Government (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), 23-52.
25 Pages Posted: 8 Jul 2005 Last revised: 14 Jan 2020
John Adams is gaining new respect today both for his political shrewdness and his religious wisdom. Both these talents were on full display in the 1780 Massachusetts Constitution that Adams largely crafted. Striking a via media between defenders of the traditional Congregationalist establishment and religious dissenters, Adams' constitution established one public religion but granted freedom to all peaceable private religions. This juxtaposition reflected Adams' political and religious philosophy. Every state and society, he believed, had to establish by law some common values and beliefs to undergird and support the plurality of private religions that it embraced. The notion that a state and society could remain neutral and purged of any public religion was, for Adams, a philosophical fiction. Absent a commonly adopted set of values and beliefs, politicians would invariably hold out their private convictions as public ones. But every state and society also had to respect and protect a plurality of forms of religious exercise and association. The notion that a state could coerce all persons into adherence and adherents to a single established religion alone was, for Adams, equally a philosophical fiction. Persons would make their own private judgments in matter of faith and conscience, even if they pretended to conformity.
Keywords: Religion, History, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, American Founders, religious freedom, church and state, Public Religion, Constitution
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