Is Operational Hedging a Substitute for or a Complement to Financial Hedging?
31 Pages Posted: 16 Sep 2005 Last revised: 24 Oct 2008
This paper investigates operational hedging by firms and how operational hedging is related to financial hedging by using a sample of 424 firm observations, which consist of 212 operationally-hedged firms (firms with foreign sales) and a size and industry matched sample of 212 non-operationally-hedged firms (firms with export sales). We find that non-operationally-hedged firms use more financial hedging, relative to their levels of foreign currency exposure, as measured by the amount of export sales. On the other hand, though operationally-hedged firms have more currency exposure, their usage of financial derivatives becomes much smaller than that of exporting firms. These results can explain why some global firms use very limited amount of financial derivatives for hedging purpose despite much higher levels of currency risk exposure. We also show that hedging increases firm value.
Keywords: Operational hedging, Financial hedging, Foreign exchange exposure, Financial derivatives
JEL Classification: F23, F21, F31, G32
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