J. OF FINANCE, Vol. 52 No. 1, March 1997
Posted: 16 Jan 1997
Textbook arbitrage in financial markets requires no capital and entails no risk. In reality, almost all arbitrage requires capital, and is typically risky. Moreover, professional arbitrage is conducted by a relatively small number of highly specialized investors using other peoples' capital. Such professional arbitrage has a number of interesting implications for security pricing, including the possibility that arbitrage becomes ineffective in extreme circumstances, when prices diverge far from fundamental values. The model also suggests where anomalies in financial markets are likely to appear, and why arbitrage fails to eliminate them.
JEL Classification: G12, G14, G13
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
Shleifer, Andrei and Vishny, Robert W., The Limits of Arbitrage. J. OF FINANCE, Vol. 52 No. 1, March 1997. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=8043