Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options

Journal of Econometrics, 1998

Posted: 6 May 1998

See all articles by Zhiwu Chen

Zhiwu Chen

University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Business Economics (HKU Business School); Asia Global Institute, University of Hong Kong

Gurdip Bakshi

Fox School of Business; Temple University - Fox School of Business and Management

Charles Cao

Pennsylvania State University


Recent empirical studies find that once an option pricing model has incorporated stochastic volatility, allowing interest rates to be stochastic does not improve pricing or hedging any further while adding random jumps to the modeling framework only helps the pricing of extremely short-term options but not the hedging performance. Given that only options of relatively short terms are used in existing studies, this paper addresses two related questions: Do long-term options contain different information than short-term options? If so, can long-term options better differentiate among alternative models? Our inquiry starts by first demonstrating analytically that differences among alternative models usually do not surface when applied to short term options, but do so when applied to long-term contracts. For instance, within a wide parameter range, the Arrow-Debreu state price densities implicit in different stochastic-volatility models coincide almost everywhere at the short horizon, but diverge at the long horizon. Using regular options (of less than a year to expiration) and LEAPS, both written on the S&P 500 index, we find that short- and long-term contracts indeed contain different information and impose distinct hurdles on any candidate option pricing model. While the data suggest that it is not as important to model stochastic interest rates or random jumps (beyond stochastic volatility) for pricing LEAPS, incorporating stochastic interest rates can nonetheless enhance hedging performance in certain cases involving long-term contracts.

Note: This is a description of the article and not the actual abstract.

JEL Classification: G10, G12, G13

Suggested Citation

Chen, Zhiwu and Bakshi, Gurdip S. and Bakshi, Gurdip S. and Cao, Charles, Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options. Journal of Econometrics, 1998, Available at SSRN:

Zhiwu Chen

University of Hong Kong, Faculty of Business Economics (HKU Business School) ( email )

Pokfulam Road
Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Asia Global Institute, University of Hong Kong ( email )

Room 328-348, Main Building
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Gurdip S. Bakshi

Fox School of Business ( email )

Department of Finance
Philadelphia, PA 19022
United States
215-204-6117 (Phone) (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://

Temple University - Fox School of Business and Management ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19122
United States

HOME PAGE: http://

Charles Cao (Contact Author)

Pennsylvania State University ( email )

Department of Finance
Smeal College of Business
University Park, PA 16802
United States
814-865-7891 (Phone)
814-865-3362 (Fax)


Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics