Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options

Journal of Econometrics, 1998

Posted: 6 May 1998

See all articles by Zhiwu Chen

Zhiwu Chen

University of Hong Kong; Yale University - International Center for Finance; Zebra Capital Management, LLC

Gurdip Bakshi

Fox School of Business

Charles Cao

Pennsylvania State University


Recent empirical studies find that once an option pricing model has incorporated stochastic volatility, allowing interest rates to be stochastic does not improve pricing or hedging any further while adding random jumps to the modeling framework only helps the pricing of extremely short-term options but not the hedging performance. Given that only options of relatively short terms are used in existing studies, this paper addresses two related questions: Do long-term options contain different information than short-term options? If so, can long-term options better differentiate among alternative models? Our inquiry starts by first demonstrating analytically that differences among alternative models usually do not surface when applied to short term options, but do so when applied to long-term contracts. For instance, within a wide parameter range, the Arrow-Debreu state price densities implicit in different stochastic-volatility models coincide almost everywhere at the short horizon, but diverge at the long horizon. Using regular options (of less than a year to expiration) and LEAPS, both written on the S&P 500 index, we find that short- and long-term contracts indeed contain different information and impose distinct hurdles on any candidate option pricing model. While the data suggest that it is not as important to model stochastic interest rates or random jumps (beyond stochastic volatility) for pricing LEAPS, incorporating stochastic interest rates can nonetheless enhance hedging performance in certain cases involving long-term contracts.

Note: This is a description of the article and not the actual abstract.

JEL Classification: G10, G12, G13

Suggested Citation

Chen, Zhiwu and Bakshi, Gurdip S. and Cao, Charles, Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options. Journal of Econometrics, 1998. Available at SSRN:

Zhiwu Chen

University of Hong Kong ( email )

Pokfulam Road
Hong Kong

Yale University - International Center for Finance ( email )

Box 208200
New Haven, CT 06520-8200
United States
203-432-5948 (Phone)
203-432-6970 (Fax)

Zebra Capital Management, LLC ( email )

612 Wheelers Farms Road
Milford, CT 06461
United States

Gurdip S. Bakshi

Fox School of Business ( email )

Department of Finance
Philadelphia, PA 19022
United States
215-204-6117 (Phone) (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://

Charles Cao (Contact Author)

Pennsylvania State University ( email )

Department of Finance
Smeal College of Business
University Park, PA 16802
United States
814-865-7891 (Phone)
814-865-3362 (Fax)


Register to save articles to
your library


Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics