Adding 3ns to the 3ds: Lessons from the 1996 Zaire Mission for Humanitarian Interventions

Centre for International Governance Innovation Working Paper No. 4

34 Pages Posted: 10 Jan 2006

See all articles by Andrew Cooper

Andrew Cooper

Centre for International Governance and Innovation (CIGI); University of Waterloo

Date Written: December 2005

Abstract

This paper examines the 3D (defence, diplomacy, and development) framework for humanitarian interventions in weak states and/or conflict situations. It accepts that there are some considerable strengths built into this strategic concept for it privileges both a whole of government approach and the need to emphasize capacity building in all areas of governance. It argues, however, that the 3D framework remains too narrow in its logic and mode of application. The paper asserts that the 3D approach needs to be complemented by another configuration termed the 3Ns - niches, norms, and networks. In suggesting that the framework guiding humanitarian interventions needs to be extended in this fashion, this work considers both evolving cases (Afghanistan, Haiti, and potentially Darfur) and offers a detailed examination of the pivotal Canadian rescue mission to Zaire at the end of 1996. At the core of the paper is the contention that Canada needs to cast its involvement in humanitarian interventions though a less bureaucratically driven approach. What is required instead is a fuller appreciation of contextual considerations.

Keywords: humanitarian interventions, Zaire, diplomacy, defence, development, fragile, weak, states

Suggested Citation

Cooper, Andrew, Adding 3ns to the 3ds: Lessons from the 1996 Zaire Mission for Humanitarian Interventions (December 2005). Centre for International Governance Innovation Working Paper No. 4. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=873604 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.873604

Andrew Cooper (Contact Author)

Centre for International Governance and Innovation (CIGI) ( email )

57 Erb Street West
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 6C2
Canada

University of Waterloo

Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1
Canada

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