Universal Immunization Programme in India: The Determinants of Childhood Immunization
70 Pages Posted: 7 Feb 2006
The study analyses the effects of some selected demographic and socioeconomic predictor variables on likelihood of immunization of a child for six vaccine-preventable diseases covered under UIP. It focuses on immunization coverage a) in all India, b) in rural and urban areas, c) for DPT, Polio, and partial immunization, d) for three groups of states, namely, Empowered Action Group, North-Eastern and other states, and e) for three states, namely, Bihar, Tamilnadu, and West Bengal. The study applies logistic regression model to National Family Health Survey-2 (1998-99) data. Excepting a few cases, the results are consistent across different models. Likelihood increases with residence, mother's education level, mother's exposure to mass media, mother's awareness about immunization, antenatal care during pregnancy, standard of living index of household, electricity, female household-headship, mother's empowerment index, and sex of the child; it decreases with birth-order irrespective of the sex of the child. Religion, caste/tribe and zone of states also have some effects. Further research with both demand- and supply-side issues and current data will be critical for the policy makers to make the immunization programme justly universal.
Keywords: Immunization, UIP, NFHS-2, Logit, Unadjusted and Adjusted Likelihood
JEL Classification: C25, I18, J13
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation