Getting Beyond Kansas

11 Pages Posted: 3 Mar 2006 Last revised: 19 Sep 2013


This essay, written for a symposium on the 25th anniversary of Philips Petroleum v. Shutts, critically examines the legacy of Shutts. The first part argues that Shutts solved the immediate problem of allowing a centralized forum to adjudicate common claims of market-based harms, despite the multistate citizenship of the affected individuals. Shutts handled this by applying a due process balancing approach to the question of personal jurisdiction and, in turn, allowing notice and the ability to opt out to suffice to establish binding personal jurisdiction over class actions. Shutts could not, however, provide a mechanism to ensure that the forum in which the case was consolidated was the most appropriate place to litigate the matter, as opposed to simply being an appropriate forum. The result was widespread forum-shopping in class actions. That problem has been addressed, to some extent, by the newly enacted Class Action Fairness Act.

The second part of this essay addresses the problem of choice of law once a case is consolidated in a single proceeding. Shutts struck down the application of forum law to transactions that were unrelated to the Kansas site of the litigation. But Shutts left open the question of what the permissible parameters of choice of law should be. This essay concludes with an argument for why the use of a standardized body of law, such as that from the home state of the defendant, is the necessary next step for the efficient adjudication of common market-based claims.

Keywords: class actions, Shutts, choice of law

JEL Classification: K10, K40, K41

Suggested Citation

Issacharoff, Samuel, Getting Beyond Kansas. University of Missouri-Kansas City Law Review, Vol. 74, 2006, NYU Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 06-06, NYU, Law and Economics Research Paper No. 06-33, Available at SSRN:

Samuel Issacharoff (Contact Author)

New York University School of Law ( email )

40 Washington Square South
New York, NY 10012-1099
United States
212-998-6580 (Phone)
212-995-3150 (Fax)

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics