Competition and Diversification Effects in Supply Chains with Supplier Default Risk
Manufacturing & Service Operations Management
Posted: 22 May 2006
We study the effects of disruption risk in a supply chain where one retailer deals with competing risky suppliers who may default during their production lead-times. The suppliers, who compete for business with the retailer by establishing wholesale prices, are leaders in a Stackelberg game with the retailer. The retailer, facing uncertain future demand, chooses order quantities while weighing the benefits of procuring from the cheapest supplier against the advantages of order diversification. For the model with two suppliers we show that low supplier default correlations dampens competition among the suppliers, increasing the equilibrium wholesale prices. Therefore, the retailer prefers suppliers with highly correlated default events, despite the loss of diversification benefits. In contrast, the suppliers and the channel prefer defaults that are negatively correlated. However, as the number of suppliers increases our model predicts that the retailer may be able to take advantage of both competition and diversification.
Keywords: Resilient supply chains, supply risk, supply disruptions, competition
JEL Classification: A10, C60, C79
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