Science-Driven vs. Market-Pioneering High Tech: Comparative German Technology Sectors in the Late Nineteenth and Late Twentieth Centuries
Posted: 29 Feb 2008
Date Written: April 2005
Imperial Germany can be considered the cradle of high-technology industry. This review of organizational innovations in Germany`s early `high-tech` industries, electricity and organic chemicals in the late nineteenth century, as well as in two modern German high-tech sectors, computing and biotechnology in the late twentieth century, underscores enduring cross-sectoral variations in high-tech competition. The contrast between science-driven and market-pioneering high-tech sectors is shown to be historically robust, with implications for the so-called European Paradox of high R&D levels unmatched by corresponding levels of commercial performance in European high-tech sectors.
Keywords: exposure visualization, PIMEX, real-time monitoring, risk communication, task analysis, video exposure monitoring, workplace improvement strategy
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