Cartagena Protocol: A New Trade Barrier?

8 Pages Posted: 19 Jul 2006

See all articles by Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

University of Missouri at Columbia - Department of Economics


Delineating the implementation details of the 2003 Cartagena Biosafety Protocol for living modified organisms involves weighing risks, costs, benefits, and politics - a difficult balancing act. Intrinsic market and technical complexities in the global agricultural commodity system raise the spectacle of significant disruptions and compliance costs. Moreover, there has been little tangible evidence of any actual risks associated with such organisms currently on the market. Thus, there is a high option value in adopting a "wait and see" approach.

Keywords: Trade, Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes, cartagena biosafety protocol, living modified organisms, trade barrier, BSP, LMO, labeling requirements, biosafety labels

JEL Classification: F00, F01, F10, F13, F17, I18, L15, L66, M37

Suggested Citation

Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas, Cartagena Protocol: A New Trade Barrier?. Regulation, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 18-25, Summer 2006 , Available at SSRN:

Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes (Contact Author)

University of Missouri at Columbia - Department of Economics ( email )

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Columbia, MO 65211
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