Early Childhood Development Through an Integrated Program: Evidence from the Philippines

37 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016  

Graeme Armecin

University of San Carlos

Jere Behrman

University of Pennsylvania - Department of Economics

Paulita Duazo

University of San Carlos

Sharon Ghuman

affiliation not provided to SSRN

Socorro Gultiano

University of San Carlos

Elizabeth King

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG)

Nannette Lee

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Date Written: May 1, 2006

Abstract

More attention and resources have been devoted in recent years to early childhood development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries. Rigorous studies on the effectiveness of ECD-related programs for improving children's development in various dimensions in the developing world are scant. The authors evaluate an important ECD initiative of the Philippine government using longitudinal data collected over three years on a cohort of 6,693 children age 0-4 years at baseline in two "treatment" regions and a "control" region that did not receive the intervention. The initiative includes a wide range of health, nutrition, early education, and social services programs. The authors estimate its impact by using "intent-to-treat" difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimators to control for a variety of observed characteristics measured at the municipality, barangay, household, and child level and unobserved fixed characteristics, with differential impacts by age of children and duration of exposure to the program. There has been a significant improvement in the cognitive, social, motor, and language development, and in short-term nutritional status of children who reside in ECD program areas compared to those in non-program areas, particularly for those under age four at the end of the evaluation period. The proportions of children below age four with worms and diarrhea also have been lowered significantly in program compared to non-program areas, but there are effects in the opposite direction for older children so the overall impact on these two indicators is mixed.

Keywords: Health Monitoring & Evaluation, Early Childhood Development, Youth and Governance, Primary Education, Educational Sciences

Suggested Citation

Armecin, Graeme and Behrman, Jere and Duazo, Paulita and Ghuman, Sharon and Gultiano, Socorro and King, Elizabeth and Lee, Nannette, Early Childhood Development Through an Integrated Program: Evidence from the Philippines (May 1, 2006). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3922. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=917493

Graeme Armecin

University of San Carlos

Cebu City
Philippines

Jere R. Behrman

University of Pennsylvania - Department of Economics ( email )

160 McNeil Building
3718 Locust Walk
Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States
215-898-7704 (Phone)
215-573-2057 (Fax)

Paulita Duazo

University of San Carlos

Cebu City
Philippines

Sharon Ghuman

affiliation not provided to SSRN

No Address Available

Socorro Gultiano

University of San Carlos

Cebu City
Philippines

Elizabeth King (Contact Author)

World Bank - Development Research Group (DECRG) ( email )

1818 H. Street, N.W.
MSN3-311
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Nannette Lee

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

102 Ridge Road
Chapel Hill, NC NC 27514
United States

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