Fixed and Mixed Effects Models in Meta-Analysis

41 Pages Posted: 25 Jul 2006

See all articles by Spyros Konstantopoulos

Spyros Konstantopoulos

Boston College; IZA Institute of Labor Economics

Date Written: July 2006


The last three decades the accumulation of quantitative research evidence has led to the development of systematic methods for combining information across samples of related studies. Although a few methods have been described for accumulating research evidence over time, meta-analysis is widely considered as the most appropriate statistical method for combining evidence across studies. This study reviews fixed and mixed effects models for univariate and multivariate meta-analysis. In addition, the study discusses specialized software that facilitates the statistical analysis of meta-analytic data.

Keywords: meta-analysis, mixed models, multivariate analysis

JEL Classification: C02

Suggested Citation

Konstantopoulos, Spyros, Fixed and Mixed Effects Models in Meta-Analysis (July 2006). IZA Discussion Paper No. 2198. Available at SSRN:

Spyros Konstantopoulos (Contact Author)

Boston College ( email )

140 Commonwealth Avenue
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467
United States

IZA Institute of Labor Economics

P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

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