Science and Industry: Tracing the Flow of Basic Research Through Manufacturing and Trade

43 Pages Posted: 21 Aug 2006 Last revised: 19 Jul 2010

See all articles by James D. Adams

James D. Adams

Dept of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

Roger Clemmons

University of Florida - Institute for Child Health Policy

Date Written: August 2006

Abstract

This paper describes flows of basic research through the U.S. economy and explores their implications for scientific output at the industry and field level. The time period is the late 20th century. This paper differs from others in its use of measures of science rather than technology. Together its results provide a more complete picture of the structure of basic research flows than was previously available. Basic research flows are high within petrochemicals and drugs and within a second cluster composed of software and communications. Flows of chemistry, physics, and engineering are common throughout industry; biology and medicine are almost confined to petrochemicals and drugs, and computer science is nearly as limited to software and communications. In general, basic research flows are more concentrated within scientific fields than within industries. The paper also compares effects of different types of basic research on scientific output. The main finding is that the academic spillover effect significantly exceeds that of industrial spillovers or industry basic research. Finally, within field effects exceed between field effects, while the within- and between industry effects are equal. Therefore, scientific fields limit basic research flows more than industries.

Suggested Citation

Adams, James D. and Clemmons, J. Roger, Science and Industry: Tracing the Flow of Basic Research Through Manufacturing and Trade (August 2006). NBER Working Paper No. w12459. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=924745

James D. Adams (Contact Author)

Dept of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ( email )

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National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) ( email )

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J. Roger Clemmons

University of Florida - Institute for Child Health Policy ( email )

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Gainesville, FL 32610-0147
United States

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