How Do Patent Laws Influence Innovation?
45 Pages Posted: 15 Sep 2006
Studies of innovation have focused on the effects of patent laws on the number of innovations but ignored effects on the direction of technological change. This paper introduces a new data set of close to fifteen thousand innovations at the Crystal Palace World's Fair in 1851 and at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876 to examine the effects of patent laws on the direction of innovation. The paper tests the following argument: if innovative activity is motivated by expected profits, and if the effectiveness of patent protection varies across industries, then innovation in countries without patent laws should focus on industries where alternative mechanisms to protect intellectual property are effective. Analyses of exhibition data for twelve countries in 1851 and ten countries in 1876 indicate that inventors in countries without patent laws focus on a small set of industries where patents were less important, while innovation in countries with patent laws appears to be much more diversified. These findings suggest that patents help to determine the direction of technical change and that the adoption of patent laws in countries without such laws may alter existing patterns of comparative advantage across countries.
Keywords: Innovation, Patent Laws, Technical Change
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