Angel Finance: The Other Venture Capital
66 Pages Posted: 2 Nov 2006
Date Written: January 2002
Angel financing is one of the most common, but least studied methods, to finance new ventures. In this paper, I propose a model to explain angel behavior. I use a unique dataset of angel-backed firms to test the predictions of the model and examine the characteristics of angel financing. Although they are exposed to greater uncertainty by investing earlier in the life of a firm compared to venture capital, angel investors do not rely on traditional control mechanisms such as board control, staging, or contractual provisions to protect against expropriation. Instead, angels reduce expected agency costs by forcing entrepreneurs to hold a larger stake in the firm, thereby aligning the interests of the entrepreneur with the outcome of the firm. In addition, angels use more informal methods such as investing in close geographic proximity and syndicating investments with other angels to mitigate risks.
Keywords: Angel, Venture Capital, Entrepreneurship
JEL Classification: G20, G24
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation