The Uptick Rule of Short Sale Regulation — Can it Alleviate Downward Price Pressure from Negative Earnings Shocks?
Rutgers Business Law Journal, Vol. 5, p. 1, 2008
64 Pages Posted: 11 Jan 2007 Last revised: 13 Nov 2009
Date Written: January 15, 2007
This paper examines the effect of the uptick rule (including the bid test applicable to NASDAQ stocks) of short sale regulations on stock prices and short selling activities immediately after negative earnings surprises that occurred during the period of May to November 2005. It compares price paths and short selling activities of stocks restricted by the uptick rule with stocks that were exempted from the rule as a result of the SEC's Pilot Program. The study has not found any evidence that prices of stocks subject to the rule declined at a slower speed than prices of exempted stocks at times of stress. The two groups of stocks had similar levels of short sale volumes despite the rule's prohibition on short selling at minus or zero-minus ticks. For NYSE and AMEX stocks, our study shows that market short orders whose immediate executions were barred by the uptick rule found execution opportunities against the upcoming buy orders within 15 minutes after their conversion into limit orders at the legally shortable price. For NASDAQ stocks, our study shows that up bids occurred with high frequency after negative earnings surprises and jointly with price improvements they offered generous execution opportunities to short sale orders.
Keywords: short sale, uptick rule, short volume, short price, short sale execution
JEL Classification: G28, K00, K22
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation