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Survey: Virtual Worlds and Augmented Realty, 1991-Present

15 Pages Posted: 15 Feb 2007 Last revised: 20 Nov 2008

David A. Bray

Harvard University; University of Oxford; National Defense University

Date Written: October 1, 2006


Discussion of how virtual, web-based interactions provide (1) a malformed context for human emotions, (2) a forum for publicizing of traditionally private workplace discussions, and (3) a source of information overload - potentially addressable through an evolutionary view. Subsequent discussion details examples of virtual worlds from 1991 to the present. This discussion is intended as a working paper.

Keywords: emerging virtual institutions, virtual worlds, augmented reality, augmented group cognition, governance, social orders

JEL Classification: D23, D70, D73, D83

Suggested Citation

Bray, David A., Survey: Virtual Worlds and Augmented Realty, 1991-Present (October 1, 2006). Available at SSRN: or

David A. Bray (Contact Author)

Harvard University ( email )

1875 Cambridge Street
Cambridge, MA 02138
United States

University of Oxford

United Kingdom


National Defense University ( email )

Marshall Hall
300 5th Avenue
Washington, DC 20319-5066
United States

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