The Five Indicia of Virtual Property

25 Pages Posted: 14 Feb 2007

See all articles by Charles Blazer

Charles Blazer

University of New Hampshire School of Law (formerly Franklin Pierce Law Center)


Building on the analysis of Professor Joshua Fairfield, from his seminal article titled Virtual Property, this note proposes five indicia, common to most forms of virtual property, which a court should use to identify legally protectable virtual property interests on the Internet. These indicia are: (1) rivalry; (2) persistence; (3) interconnectivity; (4) secondary markets; and (5) value-added-by-users. This note cautions, however, against applying this framework indiscriminately against the interests of the very entities without whom the property would not exist. The ultimate purpose of virtual property jurisprudence should be to strike a balance that provides legal redress to users whose legitimate property interests have been violated while simultaneously reducing liability and disincentives to service providers who promote and sustain the growth of the Internet.

Suggested Citation

Blazer, Charles, The Five Indicia of Virtual Property. Pierce Law Review, Vol. 5, p. 137, 2006, Available at SSRN:

Charles Blazer (Contact Author)

University of New Hampshire School of Law (formerly Franklin Pierce Law Center) ( email )

Two White Street
Concord, NH 03301
United States

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