Changing Dimensions of International Investment Law

124 Pages Posted: 14 Mar 2007

See all articles by Vaughan Lowe

Vaughan Lowe

University of Oxford - Faculty of Law

Date Written: March 2007


The paper reviews the development of the protection of investments in international law, particularly during the past half century. After an initial survey of the main legal instruments it considers the questions of fair and equitable treatment and of protection against unlawful expropriation, and the specific issues of 'umbrella' clauses, multiple claims, the 'fork in the road' and transparency and public participation. The paper is the text of a series of lectures given at the Chinese Academy of International Law in Xiamen, China in September 2006.

Keywords: Investment, BIT, IPPA, ICSID, MIGA, Expropriation, Fair and Equitable Treatment, Transparency, 'Umbrella clause', 'fork in the road'

Suggested Citation

Lowe, Vaughan, Changing Dimensions of International Investment Law (March 2007). Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper No. 4/2007, Available at SSRN: or

Vaughan Lowe (Contact Author)

University of Oxford - Faculty of Law ( email )

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